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In total, 31, We identified 43 different potential genes that are likely to be involved with freshwater adaptation in M. Identified candidate genes included: 25 genes for osmoregulation, five for cell volume regulation, seven for stress tolerance, three for body fluid haemolymph maintenance, eight for epithelial permeability and water channel regulation, nine for egg size control and three for larval development. Differential gene expression DGE analysis showed that 15 genes were expressed differentially in different individuals but these genes apparently were not involved with freshwater adaptation but rather were involved in growth, development and reproductive maturation.

The genomic resources developed here will be useful for better understanding the molecular basis of freshwater adaptation in Macrobrachium prawns and other. Background The endemic Australian freshwater prawn , Macrobrachium koombooloomba, provides a model for exploring genes involved with freshwater adaptation because it is one of the relatively few Macrobrachium species that can complete its entire life cycle in freshwater.

Methods The present study was conducted to identify potential candidate genes that are likely to contribute to effective freshwater adaptation by M. De novo assembly of 75 bp paired end ,, high quality Illumina raw reads from 6 different cDNA libraries revealed , contigs of variable lengths —18, bp with an N50 value of Results In total, 31, Discussion The genomic resources developed here will be useful for better understanding the molecular basis of freshwater adaptation in.

The giant freshwater prawn , Macrobrachium rosenbergii, a sexually dimorphic decapod crustacean is currently the world's most economically important cultured freshwater crustacean species. Despite its economic importance, there is currently a lack of genomic resources available for this species, and this has limited exploration of the molecular mechanisms that control the M.

Here, we present the first hybrid transcriptome from M. Bioinformatic analyses based on three state-of-the-art assemblers, the CLC Genomic Workbench, Trans-ABySS, and Trinity, that use single and multiple k-mer methods respectively, were used to analyse the data.

The influence of multiple k-mers on assembly performance was assessed to gain insight into transcriptome assembly from short reads. After optimisation, de novo assembly resulted in 44, contigs with a mean length of bp, and the assembled transcripts were further functionally annotated to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms and simple sequence repeat motifs.

Gene expression analysis was also used to compare expression patterns from ovary and testis tissue libraries to identify genes with potential roles in reproduction and sex differentiation. The large transcript set assembled here represents the most comprehensive set of transcriptomic resources ever developed for reproduction traits in M. The experimental diets were readily consumed by prawns PLs where both high growth and good feed efficiency were achieved for all diets. The results showed that the diets containing A.

No differences were observed for moisture and protein content among the experimental diets. However, the highest protein content was observed on prawns fed on diets T1 and T5 respectively, while the lowest value was recorded for T 4 diet. The results also show that prawn PLs fed the diets contain A.

Feed efficiency and economic conversion rate ECR values show that economic performance and the cost-effectiveness of the A. These results are clearly indicating that A. A first insight into temperature stress-induced neuroendocrine and immunological changes in giant freshwater prawn , Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

The results revealed that haemolymph NE, hyaline cells HCs , and PO activity per granulocyte increased from 30 to min of exposure, and however, RBs and phagocytic activity significantly decreased from 30 to min of exposure as well as granular cells GCs , semigranular cells SGCs , and SOD activity decreased from 60 to min of exposure for the prawns subjected to temperature stress.

These results provide a first insight into the effects of temperature stress on haemolymph NE level and immune functions in prawns and suggest that temperature-stress-induced acute modulation in immunity is associated with the release of haemolymph NE in M. The hot-water extract of leaves of noni, Morinda citrifolia, promotes the immunocompetence of giant freshwater prawn , Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Furthermore, the HMLE was administrated in the diet at 0. The susceptibility of prawns fed the HMLE at 0.

We therefore found that HMLE administrated through the diet at 0. Molecular characterization and immunological response analysis of a novel transferrin-like, pacifastin heavy chain protein in giant freshwater prawn , Macrobrachium rosenbergii De Man, The Mr-PHC protein predicted by its full ORF, exhibited a unique transferrin-like protein structure containing 4 different lobes that have not been previously identified.

Expression analyses by conventional RT-PCR demonstrated that Mr-PHC was expressed predominantly during postlarval stage 45 and also in the foregut and gills of the adult prawn. Mr-HPC in the adult prawn was significantly upregulated at both hour 12 and day 7 after stimulation with A. Based on results of this study, the transferrin-like protein encoded by the pacifastin heavy chain gene may exist in all decapod crustaceans.

Even though the function as an iron transporter is not proven, immune response studies are clearly indicated that PHC is critically involved in the immune system in these animals. Dietary supplementation of green synthesized manganese-oxide nanoparticles and its effect on growth performance, muscle composition and digestive enzyme activities of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

1. Introduction

The green synthesized Mn3O4 nanoparticles manganese-oxide nanoparticles using Ananas comosus L. The Zeta potential revealed the surface charge of Mn-oxide NPs to be negative. Further, the Mn-oxide NPs were dietary supplemented for freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The experimental basal diets were supplemented with Mn-oxide NPs at the rates of 0 control , 3.

The as-supplemented Mn-oxide NPs were fed in M. Additionally, prawns fed with 3. Effects of hot-water extract of banana Musa acuminata fruit's peel on the antibacterial activity, and anti-hypothermal stress, immune responses and disease resistance of the giant freshwater prawn , Macrobrachium rosenbegii. The hot-extracts isolated from fruit's peel of banana, Musa acuminata, was evaluated on the antibacterial activity to pathogens from aquatic animals, and immunostimulating potential, disease resistance and anti-hypothermal stress in giant freshwater prawn , Macrobrachium rosenbergii through injection administration.

The banana peel extract BPE showed good activity against 1 Gram-positive and 3 Gram-negative pathogens, including Lactococcus garvieae, Photobacteria damsella, Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio parahemolyticus especially in prawn pathogen of L. Prawn injected with BPE at 6. Survival rates of M. It was concluded that the BPE can be used as the bacteriostat, and immunostimulant and physiological regulator for prawn through injection administration to enhance immunity, physiological responses, and resistance against L. Heavy metal contamination of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and prawn feed in Bangladesh: A market-based study to highlight probable health risks.

An assessment of the dietary risk of heavy metal exposure to humans is important since it is the main source of exposure. This study aimed to estimate the degree of contamination and assess the probable health risk in the prawn food chain. The concentrations of heavy metals in prawn were the highest for Co and lowest for Cd.

Trace amounts of As and Cr were detected in the analyzed sample. All the prawn samples contained nine-fold and fourteen-fold higher concentrations than the maximum acceptable levels for Pb and Hg, respectively 0. Human health risk due to the Co exposure is quite alarming as the level of exposure was found to be very high. In the prawn samples intended for human consumption, the hazard index HI was highest in the samples obtained from Bagerhat 3.

This is particularly problematic as this area accounts for the majority of prawn production and export of the country. Dietary supplement of banana Musa acuminata peels hot-water extract to enhance the growth, anti-hypothermal stress, immunity and disease resistance of the giant freshwater prawn , Macrobrachium rosenbergii. In the present study, Macrobrachium rosenbergii were fed with diets containing extracts of banana, Musa acuminate, fruit's peel banana peels extract, BPE at 0, 1. The non-specific immune parameters, disease resistance and anti-hypothermal stress were evaluated at 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 days of post feeding.

Also, we demonstrated the percent weight gain PWG , percent length gain PLG , feeding efficiency FE , and survival rate of giant freshwater prawn at 30, 60, 90, and days of post feeding. After 32 days of post feeding, a significant increase in total haemocyte count THC , different haemocyte count DHC , respiratory bursts RBs , superoxide dismutase SOD activity, glutathione peroxidase GPx activity, phenoloxidase PO activity and transglutaminase TG activity, and meanwhile, a decreased haemolymph coagulation time was observed.

Furthermore, phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency of prawns against Lactococcus garvieae infection were significantly increased. Prawns challenged with L. Altogether, we therefore recommend the dietary BPE administration at 6. This technique can be applied as a bioassay for testing toxicity or for the effects of various substances on embryo development and can be used as a simple and low-cost model for…. Low pH affects survival, growth, size distribution, and carapace quality of the postlarvae and early juveniles of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man.

Acidification of rain water caused by air pollutants is now recognized as a serious threat to aquatic ecosystems. We examined the effects of low pH control pH 7. Hatcheryproduced postlarvae PL 5 were stocked at PL per aquarium, acclimated over 7 d to experimental pH adjusted with hydrochloric acid, and reared for 30 d. Dead specimens were removed and counted twice a day.

After 27 d rearing, all specimens were measured for total length and body weight. Carapace quality was assessed by spectrophotometry. The final median total length and body weight of juveniles were similar at control pH 7. Length frequency distribution showed homogeneous growth at pH 6, positive skew at control pH 7. The carapace showed different transmittance spectra and lower total transmittance i.

Thus, survival, growth, size distribution, and carapace quality of M. The thinner carapace of the survivors at pH 4 was mostly due to their small size and failure to metamorphose. Natural waters affected by acid rain could decimate M. The effect of banana Musa acuminata peels hot-water extract on the immunity and resistance of giant freshwater prawn , Macrobrachium rosenbergii via dietary administration for a long term: Activity and gene transcription. The non-specific immune parameters, disease resistance and immune genes expressions in Macrobrachium rosenbergii were evaluated at days of post feeding the diets containing the extracts of banana, Musa acuminate, fruit's peel banana peels extract, BPE at 0, 1.

Results showed that prawns fed with a diet containing BPE at the level of 1. Dietary BPE supplementation at 3. We therefore recommend that BPE can be used as an immunomodulator for prawns through dietary administration at 6. The effects of thermal treatments on protein profiles of Macrobrachium rosenbergii giant river prawn. Prawn allergy is certainly the most frequent cause of allergic reactions in countries where this crustacean is a popular dish of seafood. The aim of this study was to determine the protein profiles of giant river prawn which scientifically known as Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

Raw and cooked extracts boiled, steamed and fried of prawn samples were prepared and then resolved by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis SDS-PAGE. Steamed and boiled prawns presented higher numbers of protein bands compared to fried prawn. A prominent heat-resistant band between 32 to 38 kDa was seen in all extracts, might hypothesized to be tropomyosin. Other prominent bands between 17 to 20 kDa were also seen in all treated prawn extracts while bands of 24 to 27 kDa were seen in steamed and boiled prawn extracts.

These positions are consistent with the known shellfish allergens myosin light chain, sacroplasmic calcium binding protein and troponin C respectively. Several other heat-sensitive protein bands at various molecular weights were also not detected in boiled, steamed and fried extracts of this prawn.

This study showed that M. Total and inorganic arsenic in freshwater fish and prawn in Thailand. Total and inorganic arsenic levels were determined in samples of eight freshwater animal species collected from five distribution centers in the central region of Thailand between January and March Eight species with the highest annual catch, consisting of seven fish species and one prawn species, were analyzed. Concentrations of inorganic arsenic on a wet weight basis ranged from 0.

Climbing perch Anabas testudineus exhibited the highest mean concentrations of total arsenic 0. The impact of tributyltin TBT on the female gonad and the endocrine system in Macrobrachium rosenbergii was studied. Dose dependent effects were noticed in TBT exposed prawns. Presence immature oocytes, fusion of developing oocytes, increase in interstitial connective tissues, and its modification into tubular like structure and abundance of spermatogonia in the ovary of TBT treated prawns. The control prawn ovary showed normal architecture of cellular organelles such as mature oocytes with type 2 yolk globules, lipid droplets, normal appearance of yolk envelop, and uniformly arranged microvilli.

On the other hand, type 1 yolk globules, reduced size of microvilli, spermatogonial cells in ovary, spermatogonia with centrally located nucleus, and chromatin distribution throughout the nucleoplasm were present in the TBT treated group. Immunofluorescence staining indicated a reduction in vitellin content in ovary of TBT treated prawn. Moreover, TBT had inhibited the vitellogenesis by causing hormonal imbalance in M.

Thus, the present investigation demonstrates that TBT substantially affects sexual differentiation and gonadal development in M. TBT effects on the development of intersex ovotestis in female fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Growth and antioxidant status of oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense fed with diets containing vitamin E.

A feeding trial was carried out to investigate the dietary vitamin E requirement of the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense weight of 0. The contents of vitamin E in the hepatopancreas and in the muscle increased with increasing dietary vitamin E. There was a linear correlation between the vitamin E level in diet and that in muscle, and between the vitamin E level in diet and that in the hepatopancreas.

All the above results indicated that dietary vitamin E can be stored in the hepatopancreas and muscle and lower both the activities of SOD and CAT in the hepatopancreas, suggesting that it is a potential antioxidant in M. Broken line analysis conducted on the weight gains of prawns in each diet group showed that the dietary vitamin E requirement for maximum growth is Genetic diversity analysis of the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense in Huaihe River.

The oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense is an economically and nutritionally important species of decapod crustaceans in China. Genetic structure and demographic history of Macrobrachium nipponense were examined using sequence data from portions of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase subunit I COI gene.

Samples of individuals were collected from 10 localities in the upper to middle reaches of the Huaihe River. Phylogenetic tree constructed using the maximum-likelihood ML method showed that the 44 haplotypes were assigned to two obvious clades associated with geographic regions. Moreover, the median-joining network was similar to the topology of the phylogenetic tree with 44 haplotypes.

The pairwise F ST values between the populations varied from Acute toxicity of organochlorine insecticide endosulfan to the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrochium rosenbergii. Endosulfan, an organochlorine pesticide, is highly toxic and effective at controlling pests in agriculture, horticulture, and public health programs. In this study, static bioassays were used to evaluate the toxicity of endosulfan to freshwater prawns Macrobrachium rosenbergii of various lengths 1. The 96 h LC50 of endosulfan for prawns 1. The POD activities of test organisms exposed to low concentrations of endosulfan were inhibited, indicating the presence of oxygen damaged tissue.

Moreover, a notable decrease in AChE activity was observed due to overstimulation of neurotransmission, which might result in abnormal behavior. The effect caused by endosulfan on phosphatase production in the hepatopancreas of prawns 1. The 96 h LC50 values obtained in this study could be used in the formulation of water-quality criteria in China. Moreover, the changes in enzymes activities of M. The oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense is a non-obligatory amphidromous prawn , and it has a wide distribution covering almost the entire Taiwan.

A total of individuals from six reservoirs and three estuaries were separately collected. Demographic analyses implied a population expansion occurred during the recent history of the species. The dispersal route of this species might be from China to west-central and west-southern Taiwan, and then the part individuals belonging to lineage A and B dispersed southerly and northerly, respectively. And then part individuals in west-central Taiwan fell back to and stay at estuaries as the sea level rose about 18, years ago. Biomolecular changes that occur in the antennal gland of the giant freshwater prawn Machrobrachium rosenbergii.

In decapod crustaceans, the antennal gland AnG is a major primary source of externally secreted biomolecules, and some may act as pheromones that play a major role in aquatic animal communication. In aquatic crustaceans, sex pheromones regulate reproductive behaviours, yet they remain largely unidentified besides the N-acetylglucosamine-1,5-lactone NAGL that stimulates male to female attraction. In this study, we used an AnG transcriptome of the female giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii to predict the secretion of proteins, including the most abundantly expressed transcripts encoding the Spaetzle protein, a serine protease inhibitor, and an arthropodial cuticle protein AMP 8.

A quantitative proteome analysis of the female AnG at intermolt, premolt and postmolt, identified numerous proteins of different abundances, such as the hemocyanin subunit 1 that is most abundant at intermolt. We also show that hemocyanin subunit 1 is present within water surrounding females. In summary, this study has revealed components of the female giant freshwater prawn AnG that are released and contribute to further research towards understanding crustacean conspecific signalling. The gut microbial community is one of the richest and most complex ecosystems on earth, and the intestinal microbes play an important role in host development and health.

Next generation sequencing approaches, which rapidly produce millions of short reads that enable the investigation on a culture independent basis, are now popular for exploring microbial community. Currently, the gut microbiome in fresh water shrimp is unexplored. To explore gut microbiomes of the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense and investigate the effects of host genetics and habitats on the microbial composition, pyrosequencing based on the 16S rRNA gene were performed.

We collected six groups of samples, including M. We found that Proteobacteria is the major phylum in oriental river prawn , followed by Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. Compositional analysis showed microbial divergence between the two shrimp species is higher than that between the two populations of one shrimp species collected from river and lake. Hierarchical clustering also showed that host genetics had a greater impact on the divergence of gut microbiome than host habitats.

This finding was also congruent with the functional prediction from the metagenomic data implying that the two shrimp species still shared the same type of biological functions, reflecting a similar metabolic profile in their gut environments. In conclusion, this study provides the first investigation of the gut microbiome of fresh water shrimp, and supports the hypothesis of host species-specific signatures of bacterial community composition.

The effect of astaxanthin on resistance of juvenile prawns Macrobrachium nipponense Decapoda: Palaemonidae to physical and chemical stress. In recent years, the use of new scientific techniques has effectively improved aquaculture production processes. Astaxanthin has various properties in aquaculture and its antioxidant benefits have been closely related to stress resistance; besides, it is an essential factor for growth in many crustaceans and fish. The objective of this study was to evaluate the resistance of prawn Macrobrachium nipponense fed diets containing different amounts of astaxanthin AX to the shock and stress of different physicochemical environments.

The feeding trial was conducted in a recirculation water system consisting of 12 fiberglass tanks L used for holding prawns. Incorporation of AX, production output, and physiological condition were recorded after 10 weeks of feeding. The time to lethargy and the time to complete death of the prawns were recorded. The results showed that control prawns had the shortest time to lethargy and death compared with prawns subjected to the other treatments. The results of this study have shown that the amount of muscle tissue and gill carotenoids in prawn fed with an AX diet showed.

Molecular characterization of a novel ovary-specific gene fem-1 homolog from the oriental river prawn , Macrobrachium nipponense. In this study, a fem-1 homolog, designated as Mnfem-1, was first cloned from the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense. The prawn Mnfem-1 gene consists of six exons and five introns. In situ hybridization results showed that strong positive signals were concentrated at the edge of the previtellogenic and vitellogenic oocyte.

During embryogenesis, Mnfem-1 is highly expressed in both unfertilized eggs and embryos at cleavage stage and thereafter dropped to a low level from blastula to zoea, indicating that the Mnfem-1 in early embryos is maternal. After hatching, the Mnfem-1 expression significantly increased in the larvae at length of 2cm, an important stage of sex differentiation. Yeast two hybridization results showed that the Mnfem-1 protein can be potentially interactive with cathepsin L and proteins containing the domains of insulinase, ankyrin or ubiquitin.

Timing sexual differentiation: full functional sex reversal achieved through silencing of a single insulin-like gene in the prawn , Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The identification of AG-specific insulin-like factors IAGs and genomic sex markers offers an opportunity for a deeper understanding of the sexual differentiation mechanism in crustaceans and other arthropods. Here, we report, to our knowledge, the first full and functional sex reversal of male freshwater prawns Macrobrachium rosenbergii through the silencing of a single IAG-encoding gene.

These "neofemales" produced all-male progeny, as proven by sex-specific genomic markers. This finding offers an insight regarding the biology and evolution of sex differentiation regulation, with a novel perspective for the evolution of insulin-like peptides. Our results demonstrate how temporal intervention with a key regulating gene induces a determinative, extreme phenotypic shift. Our results also carry tremendous ecological and commercial implications.

Invasive and pest crustacean species represent genuine concerns worldwide without an apparent solution. Such efforts might, therefore, benefit from sexual manipulations, as has been successfully realized with other arthropods. Commercially, such manipulation would be significant in sexually dimorphic cultured species, allowing the use of nonbreeding, monosex populations while dramatically increasing yield and possibly minimizing the invasion of exotic cultured species into the environment.

A clip-domain serine proteinase homolog SPH in oriental river prawn , Macrobrachium nipponense provides insights into its role in innate immune response. In this study, a clip-domain serine proteinase homolog designated as MnSPH was cloned and characterized from a freshwater prawn Macrobrachium nipponense. The full-length cDNA of MnSPH was bp and contained a bp open reading frame ORF encoding a protein of amino acids, a bp 5'-untranslated region, and a 93 bp 3'-untranslated region.

Tissue distribution analysis indicated that the MnSPH transcripts were present in all detected tissues with highest in the hepatopancreas and ovary. The MnSPH mRNA levels in the developing ovary were stable at the initial three developmental stages, then increased gradually from stage IV later vitellogenesis , and reached a maximum at stage VI paracmasis. The increased phenoloxidase activity also demonstrated a clear time-dependent pattern after A. These results suggest that MnSPH participates in resisting to pathogenic microorganisms and plays a pivotal role in host defense against microbe invasion in M.

Early malacological literature suggests that the outbreak of schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease transmitted by aquatic snails, in the Senegal River basin occurred due to ecological changes resulting from the construction of the Diama dam. The common treatment, the drug praziquantel, does not protect from the high risk of re-infection due to human contact with infested water on a daily basis.

The construction of the dam interfered with the life cycle of the prawn Macrobrachium vollenhovenii by blocking its access to breeding grounds in the estuary. These prawns were demonstrated to be potential biological control agents, being effective predators of Schistosoma-susceptible snails. Here, we propose a responsible restocking strategy using all-male prawn populations which could provide sustainable disease control.

Male prawns reach a larger size and have a lower tendency to migrate than females. We, therefore, expect that periodic restocking of all-male juveniles will decrease the prevalence of schistosomiasis and increase villagers' welfare.


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In this interdisciplinary study, we examined current prawn abundance along the river basin, complemented with a retrospective questionnaire completed by local fishermen. We revealed the current absence of prawns upriver and thus demonstrated the need for restocking. Since male prawns are suggested to be preferable for bio-control, we laid the molecular foundation for production of all-male M. At least million people at risk of schistosomiasis are residents of areas that experienced water management manipulations.

Our suggested non. The prawn Macrobrachium vollenhovenii in the Senegal River basin: towards sustainable restocking of all-male populations for biological control of schistosomiasis. Effect of thermal acclimation on organ mass, tissue respiration, and allometry in Leichhardtian river prawns Macrobrachium tolmerum Riek, Changes to an animal's abiotic environment-and consequent changes in the allometry of metabolic rate in the whole animal and its constituent parts-has considerable potential to reveal important patterns in both intraspecific and interindividual variation of metabolic rates.

There is, however, significant variation among individuals in whole-animal metabolic rate. We hypothesized that these observations may arise because of changes in the metabolic rate and allometry of metabolic rate or mass of organ tissues within the animal. We demonstrate that thermal acclimation had no effect on organ and tissue mass, that most organ and tissue gills, gonads, hepatopancreas respiration rates do not change with acclimation temperature, and that residual variation in the allometry of M.

These results suggest that body size and ambient temperature may independently affect metabolic rate in this species. This reduction in respiration rates of muscle at higher temperatures is evidence of a tissue-specific acclimation response that was not detectable at the whole-animal level. Total mercury THg concentrations measured in two freshwater shrimp species Macrobrachium depressimanum and Macrobrachium jelskii showed a relationship with the location of artisanal and small-scale gold mining ASGM from the Madeira River Basin, Western Amazon.

Between August and May , shrimp samples were collected in the confluence of the Madeira River with three of its tributaries Western Amazon. THg concentration was quantified in the exoskeleton, hepatopancreas and muscle tissue of the shrimps by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometry. There were no significant differences between the two shrimp species when samples came from the Madeira River, but Hg concentrations were significantly lower in a tributary outside the influence of the gold mining area.

Average THg concentrations were higher in the hepatopancreas up to These organisms are important for moving Hg up food webs including those that harbor economic significant fish species and thus enhancing human exposure. The clones contain a and bp open-reading frame, and their conceptually translated peptides consist of a 41 and 34 amino acid signal peptide, respectively, and a 78 amino acid residue mature peptide hormone. Transcription of these mRNAs was detected in the eyestalk ganglia, but not in the thoracic ganglia, hepatopancreas, gut, gill, heart, or muscle.

Phylogeography and genetic structure of the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae in East Asia. The oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense is mainly distributed in East Asia. Lineage A could be further divided two sub-lineages A1 and A2. Individuals of lineage A2 were only from TLC. Demographic expansion was observed in each lineage, starting within the second-to-latest interglacial period for lineage A and within the last glacial period for lineage B.

The phylogeography and genetic structure of M. The possible dispersal routes of M. In the giant freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium rosenbergii De Man , lecithotrofic feeding was discovered at the zoea I stage, and facultative lecithotrofic feeding was found at the zoea II stage. Cases of the completion of the first two stages without feeding were detected.

However, a delay in feeding at the zoea II stage caused the inhibition of the growth and development of larvae. In this connection, we recommend to introduce food to the aquaculture of the giant freshwater shrimp on the end of the first day after hatching, when the first zoea II larvae emerge. Simultaneous identification and quantification of 4-cumylphenol, 2,4-bis- dimethylbenzyl phenol and bisphenol A in prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Bisphenol A BPA , 4-cumylphenol 4-CP and 2,4-bis- dimethylbenzyl phenol 2,4-DCP are all high production volume chemicals and widely used in plastic and other consumer products.

During the past two decades, BPA has attracted a great deal of scientific and public attention due to its presence in the environment and estrogenic property. Although 4-CP and 2,4-DCP are much more estrogenic and toxic than BPA, little information is available about their occurrence and fate in the environment. In this study, a rapid, selective, accurate and reliable analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 4-CP, 2,4-DCP and BPA in prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

The method comprises an ultrasound-accelerated extraction followed by capillary gas chromatographic GC separation. The detection limits range from 1. The calibration curves are linear over the concentration range tested with the coefficients of determination, R 2 , greater than 0. The peak identification was confirmed using GC-MS. Bisphenol A, 2,4-bis- dimethylbenzyl phenol and 4-cumylphenol were found in prawn samples in the concentration ranges of 0. All relative standard deviations are less than 4. At these environmentally relevant concentration levels, 4-CP, 2,4-DCP and BPA may affect the reproduction and development of aquatic organisms, including negative influence on crustaceans' larval survival, molting, metamorphosis and shell hardening.

Diseases and Mortalities of Fishes and Other Animals in The Gulf of Mexico

Survey of protozoan, helminth and viral infections in shrimp Litopenaeus setiferus and prawn Macrobrachium acanthurus native to the Jamapa River region, Mexico. We surveyed protozoan and metazoan parasites as well as white spot syndrome virus WSSV and infectious hypodermal hematopoietic necrosis virus IHHNV in white shrimp Litopenaeus setiferus and the palaemonid prawn Macrobrachium acanthurus native to the lower Jamapa River region of Veracruz, Mexico. Cestodes of the genus Prochristianella were evident in the hepatopancreas, while some gregarines of the genus Nematopsis, as well as unidentified larval cestodes, were observed in the intestine.

Histology identified Ascophrys sp. Slight inflammation was observed in intestinal epithelium near cestode larvae. An unidentified ciliate of the Apostomatia was also found in the gills, and Nematopsis was identified in the intestine. No histopathology was observed in association with these parasites. Effect of UVB radiation exposure in the expression of genes and proteins related to apoptosis in freshwater prawn embryos.

Our previous studies showed that embryos of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium olfersii exposed to ultraviolet B UVB radiation exhibited DNA damage, excessive ROS production, mitochondrial dysfunction and increased hsp70 expression, which are able, independently or together, to induce apoptosis.

Thus, we attempted to elucidate some key apoptosis-related genes ARG and apoptosis-related proteins ARP and their expression during different stages of embryonic development, as well as to characterize the chronology of ARG expression and ARP contents after UVB radiation insult. We demonstrate that p53, Bax and Caspase3 genes are active in the embryonic cells at early embryonic developmental stages, and that the Bcl2 gene is active from the mid-embryonic stage.

Then, after 12h of UVB radiation exposure, an increase in Caspase3 gene expression and protein was observed, concomitantly with an increased number of apoptotic cells. Overall, we demonstrate that embryonic cells of M. Isolated and combined exposure to ammonia and nitrite in giant freshwater pawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii : effects on the oxidative stress, antioxidant enzymatic activities and apoptosis in haemocytes.

The residual contaminators such as ammonia and nitrite are widely considered as relevant sources of aquatic environmental pollutants, posing a great threat to shrimp survival. To study the toxicological effects of ammonia and nitrite exposure on the innate immune response in invertebrates, we investigated the oxidative stress and apoptosis in haemocytes of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii under isolated and combined exposure to ammonia and nitrite in order to provide useful information about adult prawn immune responses.

All ammonia concentrations were combined with all nitrite concentrations, making a total of nine treatments studied. Following the exposure treatment, antioxidant enzyme activity, reactive oxygen species ROS generation, nitric oxide NO generation, and apoptotic cell ratio of haemocytes were measured using flow cytometry. NO generation synchronized with the apoptotic cell ratio in haemocytes, indicating that NO production was closely associated with programmed cell death. We hypothesized that the toxicological effect of nitrite exhibited less change in physiological changes compared to that of ammonia, because of the high tolerance to nitrite exposure in mature M.

Taken together, these results showed that ammonia and nitrite caused a series of combined oxidative stress and apoptosis in M. Effect of feeding frequency on growth, body composition, antioxidant status and mRNA expression of immunodependent genes before or after ammonia-N stress in juvenile oriental river prawn , Macrobrachium nipponense.

Feeding frequency is important for the improvement of growth performance and immunity of aquatic animals.

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In this study, the effect of feeding frequency on growth, body composition, antioxidant status and mRNA expression of immunodependent genes before or after ammonia-N stress was examined in Macrobrachium nipponense. After the feeding trial, prawns were challenged by ammonia-N. Similar mRNA expression variation trends of the two genes were observed in prawns after ammonia-N stress.

The structural change of the oviduct of freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium nipponense during spawning was examined by electron microscopy. The oviduct wall structural characteristics seem to be influenced significantly by the spawning process. Before the parturition and ovulation, two types of epithelial cells types I and II are found in the epithelium.

The free surfaces of type I and type II cells have very dense long microvilli. Under the type I and type II cells, are a relatively thick layer of secreting material and a layer of mostly dead cells. After ovulation, two other types of epithelial cells types III and IV are found in the oviduct wall epithelium. The free surface of type III cells only has short microvilli scattered on the surface.

The thick layer with secreting material and the dead cell layer disappeared at this stage. In some type III cells, the leaking out of cytoplasm from broken cell membrane led to the death of these type III cells. Evolutionary history of genus Macrobrachium inferred from mitochondrial markers: a molecular clock approach. Caridea, an infraorder of shrimps coming under Pleocyemata was first reported from the oceans before million years followed by their radiation recorded during the Permian period. Hitherto, about extant caridean species were accounted within which one quarter constitute freshwater species.

Freshwater prawns of genus Macrobrachium Infraorder Caridea; Family Palaemonidae , with more than species are inhabitants of diverse aquatic habitats like coastal lagoons, lakes, tropical streams, ponds and rivers. Previous studies on Macrobrachium relied on the highly variable morphological characters which were insufficient for accurate diagnosis of natural species groups. Present study focuses on the utility of molecular markers viz.

COI and 16S rRNA for resolving the evolutionary history of genus Macrobrachium using a combination of phylogeny and timescale components. It is for the first time a molecular clock approach had been carried out towards genus Macrobrachium in a broad aspect with the incorporation of congeners inhabiting diverse geographical realms including endemic species M.

Fishing for prawn larvae in Bangladesh: an important coastal livelihood causing negative effects on the environment. Freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii farming in Bangladesh has, to a large extent, been dependent on the supply of wild larvae. Although there are 81 freshwater prawn hatcheries in the country, a lack of technical knowledge, inadequate skilled manpower, and an insufficient supply of wild broods have limited hatchery production. Many thousands of coastal poor people, including women, are engaged in fishing for wild prawn larvae along the coastline during a few months each year.

However, indiscriminate fishing of wild larvae, with high levels of bycatch of juvenile fish and crustaceans, may impact negatively on production and biodiversity in coastal ecosystems. This concern has provoked the imposition of restrictions on larvae collection.

The ban has, however, not been firmly enforced because of the limited availability of hatchery-raised larvae, the lack of an alternative livelihood for people involved in larvae fishing, and weak enforcement power. This article discusses the environmental and social consequences of prawn larvae fishing and concludes that, by increasing awareness among fry fishers, improving fishing techniques reducing bycatch mortality , and improving the survival of fry in the market chain, a temporal ban may be a prudent measure when considering the potential negative impacts of bycatch.

However, it also suggests that more research is needed to find out about the impact of larvae fishing on nontarget organisms and on the populations of targeted species. Molecular and functional analyses of novel anti-lipopolysaccharide factors in giant river prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, De Man and their expression responses under pathogen and temperature exposure. Anti-lipopolysaccharide factor ALF is an immune-related protein that is crucially involved in immune defense mechanisms against invading pathogens in crustaceans.

The Mr-ALF8 gene was highly expressed in the heart, hemocytes, midgut, hepatopacreas and hindgut, respectively, while the Mr-ALF9 gene was modestly expressed in the heart and hemocytes, respectively. Moreover, the expression levels of these genes were significantly induced in all examined tissues by 2 different concentrations of A. Based on information. De novo assembly and transcriptome characterization of the freshwater prawn Palaemonetes argentinus: Implications for a detoxification response.

Palaemonetes argentinus, an abundant freshwater prawn species in the northern and central region of Argentina, has been used as a bioindicator of environmental pollutants as it displays a very high sensitivity to pollutants exposure. Despite their extraordinary ecological relevance, a lack of genomic information has hindered a more thorough understanding of the molecular mechanisms potentially involved in detoxification processes of this species.

Thus, transcriptomic profiling studies represent a promising approach to overcome the limitations imposed by the lack of extensive genomic resources for P.

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This work represents the first comprehensive transcriptome-based characterization of the non-model species P. Trinity de novo assembly consisted of 24, transcripts with high representation of detoxification phase I and II , anti-oxidation, osmoregulation pathways and DNA replication and bioenergetics.

This crustacean transcriptome provides valuable molecular information about detoxification and biochemical processes that could be applied as biomarkers in further ecotoxicology studies. Acute toxicity testing were carried out the freshwater swamp shrimp, Macrobrachium nipponense, as the model animal for the semiconductor applied metals gallium, antimony, indium, cadmium, and copper to evaluate if the species is an suitable experimental animal of pollution in aquatic ecosystem.

The static renewal test method of acute lethal concentrations determination was used, and water temperature was maintained at Data of individual metal obtained from acute toxicity tests were determined using probit analysis method. The median lethal concentration h LC50 of gallium, antimony, indium, cadmium, and copper for M.

Comparing the toxicity tolerance of M. Risk assessment of pesticides used in rice- prawn concurrent systems in Bangladesh. The objectives of the current study were to determine the occupational health hazards posed by the application of pesticides in rice- prawn concurrent systems of south-west Bangladesh and to assess their potential risks for the aquatic ecosystems that support the culture of freshwater prawns Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

Information on pesticide use in rice- prawn farming was collected through structured interviews with 38 farm owners held between January and May of The risks of the pesticide use to human health were assessed through structured interviews. The TOXSWA model was used to calculate pesticide exposure peak and time-weighted average concentrations in surface waters of rice- prawn systems for different spray drift scenarios and a simple first tier risk assessment based on threshold concentrations derived from single species toxicity tests were used to assess the ecological risk in the form of risk quotients.

Eleven synthetic insecticides and one fungicide sulphur were recorded as part of this investigation. The results of the first tier risk assessment indicated that chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, alpha-cypermethrin, and malathion may pose a high to moderate acute and chronic risks for invertebrates and fish in all evaluated spray drift scenarios.

The higher tier assessment using the PERPEST model confirmed the high risk of cypermethrin, alpha-cypermethrin, and chlorpyrifos for insects and macro- and micro-crustaceans thus indicating that these pesticides may have severe adverse consequences for the prawn. A spring-matrix model for pigment translocation in the red ovarian chromatophores of the freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium olfersi Crustacea, Decapoda.

A model for intracellular transport of pigment granules in the red ovarian chromatophores of the freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium olfersi is proposed on the basis of shifts in the equilibrium of resting forces acting on an elastic pigment matrix.

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The model describes a pigment-transport mechanism in which mechanochemical protein motors like kinesin and myosin alternately stretch and compress a structurally unified, elastic pigment matrix. Quantifiable properties of the spring-matrix obey Hooke's Law during the rapid phases of pigment aggregation and dispersion.

The spring-like response of the pigment mass is estimated from previous kinetic experiments on pigment translocation induced by red pigment concentrating hormone, or by the calcium ionophore A Both translocation effectors trigger an initial phase of rapid pigment aggregation, and their removal or washout after complete aggregation produces a phase of rapid pigment dispersion, followed by slow pigment translocation.

The rapid-phase kinetics of pigment transport are in reasonable agreement with Hooke's Law, suggesting that such phases represent the release of kinetic energy, probably produced by the mechanochemical protein motors and stored in the form of matrix deformation during the slow phases of translocation. This semiquantitative model should aid in analyzing intracellular transport systems that incorporate an elastic component.

Five different species of aquatic insects were collected from nursery ponds containing the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii infected with Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus MrNV and extra small virus XSV. This revealed aggregation of viral particles throughout the cytoplasm for cells challenged with inocula from all the insect species except Nepa sp.

Histological alterations in gills of Macrobrachium amazonicum juveniles exposed to ammonia and nitrite. Aquaculture has shown great growth in the last decades. Due to the restrictions on water use, production systems are becoming increasingly more intensive, raising concerns about the production water quality. Macrobrachium amazonicum is among the freshwater prawn species with favorable characteristics for production and possibility of intensification. Nitrogen compounds such as ammonia and nitrite affect the health of aquatic organisms since they quickly reach toxic concentrations.

These compounds can also cause damage to the gill structure, leading to hypoxia in tissues, affecting acid-base balance, osmoregulation salt absorption and ammonia excretion, decreasing the immune capacity of the animal and, in extreme cases, cause death. The aim of this study was to assess histological changes in the gills of Macrobrachium amazonicum juveniles subjected to different concentrations of total ammonia and nitrite.

The prawns were subjected to different concentrations of those compounds and their gills were removed and preserved for histological analysis. The gills were assessed for changes according to the Organ Index I org and, for each change, an importance factor w was attributed according to the degree of reversibility and applied according to the degree of extension or frequency of the damage.

The other treatments which caused less mortality had mainly inflammation and regressive damages, whose occurrence increased according to the increase in ammonia and nitrite concentration. The histological analysis confirmed that the higher the total ammonia and nitrite concentrations, the larger the damages caused to the gill structure and that lower nitrite concentrations caused similar damages to those caused by higher total ammonia concentrations, which reflects the lower.

Effects of chlordecone on hydroxyecdysone concentration and chitobiase activity in a decapod crustacean, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. However, few studies have investigated its impact on freshwater invertebrates. Whereas CLD is suspected of inducing endocrine disruption, this work aimed to study the effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of CLD on the hydroxyecdysone HE hormone concentration and on the chitobiase activity, both having key roles in the molting process of crustaceans.

In addition, the bioaccumulation of CLD was measured in the muscle tissue of Macrobrachium rosenbergii to underline potential dose-response relationship.

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The results have shown that CLD was bioaccumulated in exposed organisms according to a trend to a dose-response relationship. Moreover, it was observed that CLD decreased the HE concentration in exposed prawns when compared to control, whatever the duration of exposure, as well as it inhibited the chitobiase activity after 30days of exposure.

The present study indicates that CLD could interfere with molting process of M. This study also confirmed that CLD could be an endocrine disruptor in decapod crustaceans, as it was already observed in vertebrates. Nearly million people are at higher risk of schistosomiasis because dams block the migration of snail-eating river prawns.

Sokolow, Susanne H. Dams have long been associated with elevated burdens of human schistosomiasis, but how dams increase disease is not always clear, in part because dams have many ecological and socio-economic effects. A recent hypothesis argues that dams block reproduction of the migratory river prawns that eat the snail hosts of schistosomiasis. In the Senegal River Basin, there is evidence that prawn populations declined and schistosomiasis increased after completion of the Diama Dam.

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